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Frequently Asked Questions

What is flame spread and smoke developed?

Surface Burning Characteristics Rating (Formerly Flame Spread Rating)

The surface Burning Characteristics Rating of a material is a number, calculated from the results of a test, which indicates the relative rate at which flame will spread over the surface of the material as compared with flame spread on asbestos-cement board,

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What are the Illumination Requirements?

Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 ft-candle (10.8 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.1 ft-candle (1.1 lux), measured along the path of egress at floor level.

Central Battery System is not mandatory.

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When is Emergency Voice Communication required?

Emergency Voice Communication (EVC) ia a system that is interlinked with the fire alarm to give evacuation or emergency messages throughout the premises for all occupants.

One way emergency voice evacuation system as well as an emergency command center shall be provided as follows;

  • For large buildings with gross floor area greater than 2,800 sqm or having a total occupant load exceeding 1000 persons and large industrial and warehouse buildings with gross floor area greater than 5,000 sqm.

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What are the requirements for Manual Call points?

Distribution of the manual call points should be such that travel distance should not be more than 45m to reach the nearest manual call point. These figures to be reduced to 25 m and 16 m in limited mobility areas, and where processes of the result in a likelihhod of rapid fire development.

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What are the classifications of fire fighting systems?

Class 1 systems comprises of 65mm diameter Landing Valve outlets coupled or uncoupled with 65mm diameter, 30-m long re-enforced rubber lined (RRL) hose with multipurpose hose nozzle for the use of Civil Defence department personnel or other trained fire fighting personnel.

Class 2 systems comprises of 25mm diameter bore for Hose Reel System or 40mm diameter bore for Hose Rack System,

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When is Single Exit Allowed in Apartment Building?

Any non-sprinklered dwelling unit shall be permitted to have a single exit, provided that one of the following criteria are met:
1. The dwelling unit has an exit door opening directly to the street or yard at ground level.
2. The dwelling unit has direct access to an outside stair and serves a maximum of two units,

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What are the requirements for Fire Command Center?

Emergency command center shall be provided in any building which is ‘high-rise’ with 23 m or more in height with the exception of One-and-two-family dwelling and such emergency command center shall have the following;
1. fire lift
2. emergency voice communication system
3. engineered smoke control system.

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What are the requirements for Landing Valves

Landing Valves shall be located in accordance to the following preference:

  1. 1. In fire fighting lobby (if provided), for the first landing valve.
  2. 2. In Fire fighting or Exit Staircase, for the first landing valve.
  3. 3. In smoke free enclosure or external corridor.

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What are the requirements for Fire Engine Access way/road?

Access way shall be positioned so that the nearer edge shall be not less than 2 m or more than 10 m from the centre position of the access opening, measured horizontally.

Access way shall be laid on a level platform or if on an incline, the gradient shall not exceed 10%.

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What are the requirements for Private Fire Hydrants

Spacing between Private Hydrants along Fire Engine access way and access road are as follows:

  • Residential and Commercial Occupancies shall be 120 m
  • Light Hazard Storage Occupancies shall be 100 m
  • Ordinary Hazard Storage Occupancies shall be 100 m
  • Light Hazard Industrial Occupancies shall be 100 m
  • Ordinary Hazard Industrial Occupancies shall be 100 m
  • High Hazard Occupancies shall be 60 m

Minimum flow rate for each Private fire hydrant shall be 500 Gallons per Minute.

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What is the maximum size of a kitchen allowed in a non-sprinklered building?

For non sprinklered protected building, the floor area of the kitchen compartment shall not exceed 150 sq.m.

NFPA Xchange:

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At What level shall the Fire Pump be installed within the building?

Fire Pumps shall be located on the ground floor or below grade level with protected  dedicated access from the fire engine access level.

Where multiple pump sets are required in a High-rise building, Intermediate  Fire Pumps and Water tanks shall be located at not more than 90 m intervals from the first Fire Pump located at the lowest level of the structure.

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What are the definition of High-rise, Medium-rise and Low-rise Buildings?

The occupancies or Multiple and Mixed occupancies, facilities, buildings and structures having total height of occupiable or usable space of more than 28 meters above the lowest grade or lowest level of Fire Service Access into that occupancy is categorized as High-rise Building.

The occupancies or Multiple and Mixed occupancies,

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When is Fire Sprinkler System required to be provided in the building?

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How to determine the Occupant Load?

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What are the minimum widths required for Corridor, Door, Ramp and Stair?

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What are the required Travel Distances?

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How to know How Many Exits are required?

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What are the required Fire Ratings inside the building?

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NFPA References

QCDD References


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