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Fire Fighting Lobby – NFPA 5000 requirements

Image below is an example of Fire Fighting Lobby;

Reference from NFPA 5000;

54.12.1.1  A minimum of one fire service access elevators shall be sized in accordance with 54.3.2.

54.12.2.2.1  Each fire service access elevator lobby shall have direct access to an exit stair enclosure.

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Horizontal Exit

reference: NFPA 101-7.2.4

The horizontal exit is probably the least understood and most underutilized of all the means of egress components. In essence, the horizontal exit is an exit that allows occupants to egress from one side of a building to another side through a fire-resistance-rated assembly, such as a fire wall or fire barrier.

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Minimum Window Sill Height


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Exit Remoteness

When protected corridors are provided as a portion of the exit access, the required exit separation can be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.

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Atrium

atrium

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Convenience Opening

Convenience stairs, loosely defined as any non-egress stairs, are increasingly popular in retail establishments. Most establishments prefer open convenience stairs as opposed to fully enclosed shaft stairs. Because open convenience stairs pose increased fire hazards, they are required to abide by a strict series of code. Here is how open convenience stairs may be permissible with the most allowances.

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Communicating Space

In 2000 NFPA, section 8.2.5.5 states that unenclosed floor openings forming a communicating space between floors is permitted if it meets the following requirements:
1) Doesn’t connect more than 3 stories
2) Lowest or next to lowest story is street floor
3) Entire floor area of the communicating space is open and unobstructed such that a fire in any part of the space will be readily obvious
4) If sprinklered,

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Life Safety Occupancy Key

Health Care Occupancy

  • 4 or more individuals incapable of self-preservation
  • Hospitals
    • General
    • Psychiatric
    • Specialty
  • Long term care
    • Nursing and convalescent homes
    • Skilled nursing facilities
    • Intermediate care facilities

Ambulatory Care Occupancy

  • Outpatient settings where 4 or more individuals at any one time are rendered incapable of self-preservation
  • Hospitals
  • Long term care

Residential Occupancy

  • Lodging and rooming house occupancy
    • Provides sleeping accommodations for 16 or fewer individuals
    • No personal care services provided
    • No individual cooking facilities;

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Draperies and Curtains

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
DRAPERIES & OTHER HANGING ETC.

AMBULATORY
(20.3.3.4.2)
Draperies shall be Flame Resistant tested as per NFPA 701

ASSEMBLY
(12.3.3, 10.2)
Screens shall be class-A or class-B as per 10.2

BUSINESS

(10.3.1)
Draperies shall be Flame Resistant tested as per NFPA 701

DAYCARE

HEALTHCARE

EDUCATIONAL

ONE &

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Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses Requirements

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.

FURNITURE & MATTRESSES TESTS

AMBULATORY
(Not Sprinklered)
(20.7.5.2, 20.7.5.3)
The Furnitures shall meet the criteria in 10.3.2.1 and 10.3.3.
The Mattresses shall meet the criteria in 10.3.2.2 and 10.3.4.

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered)
(20.7.5.2,

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Portable Fire Extinguisher

Location
Type of Extinguishers to be provided as a Set
Maximum Travel Distance to nearest Extinguisher Set

Offices

  • Water Type, 9 Ltrs
  • CO2, 2 kg

15-m

Common Circulation Areas, Corridors, Lobbies, Passageways

  • Water Type, 9 Ltrs
  • CO2, 5 kg

22.5-m

Electrical Rooms,

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Rule of 180 d for Exterior Walls

Exterior-&-Horizontal-Exit-Fire-Rating-Requirements

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Door Hardwares

  • BS EN 179:2008 Building hardware. Emergency exit devices operated by a lever handle or push pad, for use on escape routes. Requirements and test methods *
  • BS EN 1125:2008 Building hardware. Panic exit devices operated by a horizontal bar, for use on escape routes.

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Egress Door Locking

OCCUPANCY TYPE(new building)
CODE REF.
EGRESS DOOR LOCKING

AMBULATORY
NFPA 101 – 20.1.1.1.7
Doors can be locked to confine and protect building inhabitants

ASSEMBLY
NFPA 101, 7.2.1.5.3
Door shall be openable from inside, without use of key

BUSINESS
NFPA 101,

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LPG Tank

container-separation-distance

The distance requirements for propane tank locations are dependent upon the container size. Distance rules are applicable to propane tanks and their connections in relation to what surrounds them, whether it’s a house or another propane tank. Care and consideration of surrounding buildings,

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Hazard Classifications

The classification of hazard of contents is based on the potential threat to life presented by the contents. The Life Safety Code classifies contents based on the threat of fire, explosions, and other similar events. It does not specifically consider the danger posed by toxic chemical, etiologic contamination, or similar hazards.

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_Guidelines for Fire Safety Plans

General

  • Drawings to be submitted through QCD Online Permit System portal must be in AutoCAD DWG file format, purged, bonded and submitted ready for review.
  • Plans shall follow the standard format for the Title Block (refer to sample format attached).
  • All Plans, calculations,

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Standpipes (Wet & Dry Riser) System

Within the context of a building, a standpipe serves the same purpose as a fire hydrant.

A Dry Riser is a system of valves and pipework which enables the Fire Service to pump water into an inlet valve outside the building towards outlet valves inside the building.

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Delayed-Egress Locking System

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
ACCESS-CONTROLLED EGRESS DOOR REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY
()

ASSEMBLY
(12.2.2.2.4, and 7.2.1.6.1)
allows delayed-egress locking (Except at main entrance doors) in compliance with 7.2.1.6.1.

BUSINESS
(38.2.2.2.4, and 7.2.1.6.1)
allows delayed-egress lock complying with 7.2.1.6.1.

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Access Controlled Egress Door

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
ACCESS-CONTROLLED EGRESS DOOR REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY
()

ASSEMBLY
(12.2.2.2.5, and 7.2.1.6.2)
allows access-control egress doors in compliance with 7.2.1.6.2 (Except when the building is occupied, the locking system shall be disabled).

BUSINESS
(38.2.2.2.5,

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Stair Width & Height

Required stair width is determined by the required egress capacity of each floor the stair serves, considered independently. It is not necessary to accumulate occupant loads from floor to floor to determine stair width. Each story or floor level is considered separately when calculating the occupant load to be served by the means of egress from that floor.

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Travel Distance Limits

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMITS

AMBULATORY (Not Sprinklered)
20.2.6.2.1, 7.6
46 m. (from any point in a room to exit)

AMBULATORY (Sprinklered)
20.2.6.2.2, 7.6
61 m. (from any point in a room to exit)

ASSEMBLY (Not Sprinklered)
12.2.6.2
61 m.

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Fire Extinguishing System

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

AMBULATORY (Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.3.5.2 and 9.7.4.1)
Yes, required

AMBULATORY (Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.3.5.2 and 9.7.4.1)
Yes, required

BUSINESS (Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (38.3.5 and 9.7.4.1)
Yes,

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Number of Means of Exit

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
NUMBER OF MEANS OF EXIT

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
(20.2.4 and 7.4)
Minimum Two (2)

ASSEMBLY
(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
(12.2.4 and 7.4)
Minimum Two (2)

BUSINESS
(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
(38.2.4 and 7.4)
Minimum Two (2) on every storey

HEALTHCARE
(18.2.4 and 7.4)
Minimum Two (2) on every storey

EDUCATIONAL
(14.2.4 and 7.4)

(14.2.5.4)
Minimum Two (2) on every storey

Room shall have at least Two (2) doors if area >

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Occupancy Separation Requirements

Occupancy Type
Separation Requirements

Large or small assembly
2 hour

Business
1 hour

Educational
2 hour

Factory-industrial
2 hour

Hazardous

Institutional
2 hour

Mercantile
1 hour

Residential
1 hour

Storage, moderate hazard S1
3 hour

Storage, low hazard S2
2 hour

Automobile parking garages
1 hour

Automobile repair garages
2 hour

The minimum fire resistance of construction separating any two occupancies in a building of mixed occupancy shall be the higher rating required for the occupancies being separated,

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Occupant Load Factors

Use
Area per Occupant (sq.m.)

Assembly

Assembly without fixed seats (rows of chairs or standing)
0.65 net

Assembly without fixed seats (tables and chairs)
1.4 net

Assembly with fixed seats
See Note

Business areas
9.3 gross

Educational Use

Classrooms
1.9 net

Shops and other vocational areas
4.6 net

Industrial areas
9.3 gross

Institutional

Sleeping areas
11.1 gross

Inpatient treatment and ancillary areas
22.3 gross

Outpatient area
9.3 gross

Resident housing areas
11.1 gross

Library

Reading rooms
4.6 net

Stack area
9.3 gross

Malls
See

Mercantile

Basement and grade floor areas open to public
2.8 gross

Areas on other floors open to public
5.6 gross

Storage,

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Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH

AMBULATORY (Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.3.3, 38.3.3.2, and 10.2.3)
Class A, B, or C

AMBULATORY (Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.3.3, 38.3.3.2 and 10.2.7)
Class A, or B in exits or corridors Class A,

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Interior Floor Finish

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH

AMBULATORY (Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012
No requirement

AMBULATORY (Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.3.3, 38.3.3.3 and 10.2.7)
Class I or II in corridors and exits

BUSINESS (Sprinklered)
NFPA 101,

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Hazardous Areas Protection

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
HAZARDOUS AREAS PROTECTION

AMBULATORY
(20.3.2, 38.3.2 and 9.2.3)
Doors shall be self-closing.
Laboratories shall be protected as per NFPA 99.
Kitchen shall be protected as per NFPA 96.
1-hour rated wall assembly and sprinkler system.

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Exit Stair – Fire Rating (> 3 stories)

OPENING PROTECTIVES for > 3 stories Exit Stair (NFPA 101 Table 8.3.4.2).

(Applicable to all occupancy type except one and two family dwelling)

COMPONENT

WALLS AND PARTITIONS

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLIES

DOOR VISION PANEL MAXIMUM SIZE

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLIES

Staircase and Vertical Shafts
2-hrs
1.5-hrs
Maximum size tested
W-120

The Exit Separation shall have not less than a 2-hour fire resistance rating where the exit connects four or more stories,

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Exit Stair – Fire Rating (≤ 3 stories)

OPENING PROTECTIVES for > 3 stories Exit Stair (NFPA 101 Table 8.3.4.2).

(Applicable to all occupancy type except one and two family dwelling)

COMPONENT

WALLS AND PARTITIONS

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLIES

DOOR VISION PANEL MAXIMUM SIZE

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLIES

Staircase and Vertical Shafts
1-hr
1-hr
Maximum size tested
W-60

The Exit Separation shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating where the exit connects three stories or less,

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Exit Signs

Exit Signs are required in all Occupancy types except One and Two Family Dwellings (NFPA 101-xx.2.10 and 7.10).

The maximum viewing distance for exit sign is 30 m..

location of exit sign
(a) Luminance. Exit and directional signs shall have a luminance on the face of such signs of not less than 5 foot-candles (50 lux).

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Emergency Lighting

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
EMERGENCY LIGHTING

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (20.2.9.1 and 7.9)
Yes, required.

BUSINESS
(Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2012 (38.2.9.1 and 7.9)
Yes, required where one of the following exists:
a) The building is 2 stories above the level of exit discharge
b) The occupancy is subject to 50 occupants above or below the level of exit of discharge
c) The total occupant load is subject to 300 occupants

HEALTHCARE
NFPA 101,

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Door Clear Width

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
DOOR minimum CLEAR WIDTH

AMBULATORY (Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2015 (20.2.3.4)
810 mm. required for diagnostics or treatment area such as x-ray, surgical or physical therapy.

BUSINESS (Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101,

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Dead-end Corridor

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
DEAD-END

AMBULATORY
(Not Sprinklered)
(20.2.5 AND 38.2.5.2)
6 m.

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered)
(20.2.5 AND 38.2.5.2)
15 m.

BUSINESS
(Not Sprinklered)
(38.2.5.2.2)
6 m.

BUSINESS
(Sprinklered)
(38.2.5.2.1)
15 m.

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Construction Type Limitations

 

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)
CODE REF.
CONST. TYPE LIMITATION

AMBULATORY
(Table 20.1.6.1)
 Refer to NFPA 101 Table 20.1.6.1

ASSEMBLY
(Table 12.1.6)
 Refer to NFPA 101 Table 12.1.6

BUSINESS
(38.1.6)
 No Requirements as per NFPA 101-38.1.6,

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Corridor Width

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

CODE REF.
MINIMUM CORRIDOR WIDTH

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
(20.2.3.2)
1120 mm.

BUSINESS
(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
(38.2.3.2)
1120 mm. serving occupant load > 50,
900 mm. serving occupant load <

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Corridor Walls

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
CORRIDOR WALL FIRE RATING REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY
(Not Sprinklered)
(20.3.6.1 and 38.3.6.1)
1-hour,
No Requirement if occupied by single tenant,

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered)
(20.3.6.1 and 38.3.6.1)
No Requirement

ASSEMBLY
(Not Sprinklered)
(12.3.6.1)
1-hour if OL >

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Corridor Doors

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
CORRIDOR DOOR FIRE RATING REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY
(Not Sprinklered)
(20.3.6.1, 38.3.6.2, and 8.2.3.2.3.1 (2) Exception 1)
45 minutes,
No requirement if area is occupied by single tenant

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered)
NFPA 101,

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Common Path of Travel

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
COMMON PATH OF TRAVEL

AMBULATORY
(Not Sprinklered)
(20.2.5)(38.2.5.3)
23 m
30 m if within single tenant space and occupant load <30 people

AMBULATORY
(Sprinklered)
(20.2.5)(38.2.5.3)
30 m

ASSEMBLY
(Sprinklered and not sprinklered)
(12.2.5)
6.1 m if OL >50,

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Sprinkler System

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY

No Requirement

ASSEMBLY
(12.3.5.1, 12.3.5.2 and 9.7)
Yes, required when the total aggregate occupant load exceeds 300 occupants.Required also on following occupancies;
(1) Dance Halls
(2) Discotheques
(3) Nightclubs
(4) Festival Seating

BUSINESS

No Requirement

HEALTHCARE
(18.3.5.1,

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Fire Alarm System

OCCUPANCY TYPE
(new building)

CODE REF.
FIRE ALARM REQUIREMENTS

AMBULATORY
(20.3.4.1, and 9.6)
Yes, required to be provided with fire alarm system.

ASSEMBLY
(12.3.4.1, and 9.6)
Yes, required to be provided with approved fire alarm system when occupant load is more than 300 occupants.

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