Blog Archives

Fire Engine Hardstanding – Signage

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Diesel Tank

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) classifies diesel fuel as a Class II fuel. Class II fuels are not considered to be flammable liquids. They are, however, considered to be combustible liquids.

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Interior Exit Discharge

Section 7.7.2 of the Life Safety Code (LSC) allows for a stairwell to terminate inside the building, as long as it meets certain requirements. Not more than 50% of the required number of exits, and not more than 50% of the required egress capacity is allowed to discharge on the level of exit discharge.

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Door Swing Direction

Learn about door swing direction and encroachment.

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Evacuation Sign

check this link ->

BS:5499 (4.6 – mounting height), says

a) signs above doors or open spaces should be mounted* between 2 m and 2.5 m from floor level, measured
to the base of the sign and be sited as close to the centre line of the escape route as practicable.

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External Wall

exterior walls containing combustible components

cladding materials need to be tested in accordance with NFPA 285


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Fire Fighting Lobby – NFPA 5000 requirements

Fire Fighting Lobby – Example image and NFPA 5000 references

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Horizontal Exit

Learn about horizontal exits as a means of egress in buildings. Understand their purpose, exceptions, and design considerations. Find out how horizontal exits contribute to fire safety and occupant evacuation.

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Minimum Window Sill Height

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Exit Remoteness

Explore how protected corridors influence exit access and separation requirements. Learn about measuring exit separation along direct travel paths within corridors. Enhance your understanding of exit design.

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Convenience Opening

Convenience stairs, loosely defined as any non-egress stairs, are increasingly popular in retail establishments. Most establishments prefer open convenience stairs as opposed to fully enclosed shaft stairs. Because open convenience stairs pose increased fire hazards, they are required to abide by a strict series of code. Here is how open convenience stairs may be permissible with the most allowances.

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Communicating Space

In 2000 NFPA, section states that unenclosed floor openings forming a communicating space between floors is permitted if it meets the following requirements:
1) Doesn’t connect more than 3 stories
2) Lowest or next to lowest story is street floor
3) Entire floor area of the communicating space is open and unobstructed such that a fire in any part of the space will be readily obvious
4) If sprinklered,

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Life Safety Occupancy Key

Health Care Occupancy

  • 4 or more individuals incapable of self-preservation
  • Hospitals
    • General
    • Psychiatric
    • Specialty
  • Long term care
    • Nursing and convalescent homes
    • Skilled nursing facilities
    • Intermediate care facilities

Ambulatory Care Occupancy

  • Outpatient settings where 4 or more individuals at any one time are rendered incapable of self-preservation
  • Hospitals
  • Long term care

Residential Occupancy

  • Lodging and rooming house occupancy
    • Provides sleeping accommodations for 16 or fewer individuals
    • No personal care services provided
    • No individual cooking facilities;

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Draperies and Curtains

Explore building occupancy codes and regulations related to draperies and curtains. Learn about flame-resistant requirements for various occupancy types, referencing NFPA-101 2012 edition. This page provides quick references, but always consult NFPA and local codes for comprehensive information on building safety.

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Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses Requirements

Explore the requirements for upholstered furniture and mattresses in various occupancy types according to NFPA-101 2012 edition. This comprehensive guide outlines regulations for different building types, including ambulatory facilities, assembly spaces, healthcare facilities, educational institutions, and more. Understand exemption clauses, compliance criteria, and safety standards. Please note that this information is intended for quick reference and should be supplemented with complete details from NFPA or local building codes for thorough understanding and implementation.

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Portable Fire Extinguisher

This page provides information about the types of portable fire extinguishers to be provided in different locations within a building, along with the maximum travel distance to the nearest extinguisher set.

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Rule of 180 d for Exterior Walls

Explore the requirements for exterior walls with combustible components and cladding materials. Learn about fire rating standards such as NFPA 285 and their implications for building codes. Find information and resources at the NFPA website.

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Door Hardwares

Explore a comprehensive collection of building hardware standards including BS EN 179, BS EN 1125, BS EN 1154, and more. Find requirements, test methods, and details for emergency exit devices, panic exit devices, controlled door closing devices, and more.

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Egress Door Locking

Explore egress door locking requirements for different occupancy types according to NFPA 101. Learn about the codes and regulations for secure building exits. Quick reference guide.

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LPG Tank

Discover the safe distance regulations for propane tanks and their connections. Learn about container separation distance requirements for various tank sizes. Ensure legal and secure propane tank placement based on NFPA guidelines.

Hazard Classifications

The classification of hazard of contents is based on the potential threat to life presented by the contents. The Life Safety Code classifies contents based on the threat of fire, explosions, and other similar events. It does not specifically consider the danger posed by toxic chemical, etiologic contamination, or similar hazards.

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_Guidelines for Fire Safety Plans


  • Drawings to be submitted through QCD Online Permit System portal must be in AutoCAD DWG file format, purged, bonded and submitted ready for review.
  • Plans shall follow the standard format for the Title Block (refer to sample format attached).
  • All Plans, calculations,

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Standpipes (Wet & Dry Riser) System

Learn about Standpipe Systems and their importance in buildings. Understand the difference between Dry Riser and Wet Riser systems, as well as the requirements and regulations for fire hose stations and fire pumps. Find all the information you need for building safety and compliance.

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Delayed-Egress Locking System

Learn about delayed egress locking requirements for various occupancy types in compliance with NFPA 101: Find out where delayed-egress locks are permitted and the specific conditions for their use. Understand the essential guidelines for installation, including necessary signaling and emergency lighting. Quick reference guide based on NFPA-101 2012 edition.

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Access Controlled Egress Door

Learn about access-controlled egress doors and their requirements for various occupancy types. Find out how these doors function and unlock in different situations. Get insights into NFPA-101 2012 edition code references.

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Stair Width & Height

Required stair width is determined by the required egress capacity of each floor the stair serves, considered independently. It is not necessary to accumulate occupant loads from floor to floor to determine stair width. Each story or floor level is considered separately when calculating the occupant load to be served by the means of egress from that floor.

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Travel Distance Limits

Calculate allowable travel distances for different occupancy types in buildings. Learn about travel distance limits for various occupancies, including healthcare, educational, hotels, apartments, and more.

Fire Extinguishing System

Discover the requirements for installing portable fire extinguishers in different occupancy types. Learn about NFPA-101 2012 codes, training protocols, and safety guidelines. Get essential fire safety advice and weblinks for further information.

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Number of Means of Exit

Discover the required number of means of exit for different occupancy types in accordance with NFPA 101. Explore the code references and guidelines for ensuring proper building safety and compliance.

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Occupancy Separation Requirements

Explore occupancy separation requirements in building construction, including fire resistance regulations for various occupancies. Learn about storage area exemptions, commercial kitchen guidelines, and references to NFPA 101 for comprehensive information. Stay informed about essential building code standards.

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Occupant Load Factors

Area per Occupant (sq.m.)


Assembly without fixed seats (rows of chairs or standing)
0.65 net

Assembly without fixed seats (tables and chairs)
1.4 net

Assembly with fixed seats
See Note

Business areas
9.3 gross

Educational Use

1.9 net

Shops and other vocational areas
4.6 net

Industrial areas
9.3 gross


Sleeping areas
11.1 gross

Inpatient treatment and ancillary areas
22.3 gross

Outpatient area
9.3 gross

Resident housing areas
11.1 gross


Reading rooms
4.6 net

Stack area
9.3 gross



Basement and grade floor areas open to public
2.8 gross

Areas on other floors open to public
5.6 gross


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Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish

Explore the requirements and classifications of interior wall and ceiling finishes based on NFPA 101, 2012 edition. This table outlines occupancy types, code references, and applicable flame spread ratings. Understand the distinctions between Class A, B, and C finishes. Learn how these regulations help control fire spread within buildings. Please note that these quick references are not exhaustive; always refer to NFPA or local codes for comprehensive information.

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Interior Floor Finish

Explore requirements for interior floor finishes based on occupancy types and NFPA 101 codes. Learn about flame-spread classification, exit enclosure standards, and quick references for building codes.

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Hazardous Areas Protection

Explore hazardous areas protection guidelines for various building occupancy types. Learn about NFPA standards, wall assembly, and sprinkler system requirements to ensure fire safety. Understand the concept of hazardous areas and the conditions for potential fire or explosion risks.

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Exit Stair – Fire Rating (> 3 stories)

This HTML page provides information about the fire protection requirements for exit stairs in buildings with more than 3 stories. It covers fire resistance ratings for various components such as walls, fire door assemblies, door vision panels, and fire window assemblies, based on NFPA 101 standards. The page also includes references to relevant codes and standards for complete information on opening protectives. Please note that this content serves as a quick reference and should be supplemented by consulting NFPA or local codes for comprehensive details.

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Exit Stair – Fire Rating (≤ 3 stories)

This HTML code outlines specifications for exit stair wall ratings in buildings with three stories or less. It covers fire resistance requirements for various components including walls, partitions, fire door assemblies, door vision panels, and fire window assemblies. The provided information is based on NFPA 101 guidelines and is intended for quick reference. For detailed and complete information, always refer to NFPA or local building codes.

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Exit Signs

Provides information about exit signs, including their requirements and specifications. It covers topics such as the need for exit signs in different occupancy types, maximum viewing distance, luminance requirements, location placement, and electrically illuminated signs.

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Emergency Lighting

Learn about emergency lighting requirements for different occupancy types. Find code references and understand the importance of emergency lighting in ensuring safety during emergencies.

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Door Clear Width

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)


AMBULATORY (Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101, 2015 (
810 mm. required for diagnostics or treatment area such as x-ray, surgical or physical therapy.

BUSINESS (Sprinklered and Not Sprinklered)
NFPA 101,

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Dead-end Corridor

Explore occupancy types, codes, and required dead-end corridor distances for various building types. Quick reference guide based on NFPA-101 2012 edition. Learn about exceptions and important notes.

Construction Type Limitations


OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)

 Refer to NFPA 101 Table

(Table 12.1.6)
 Refer to NFPA 101 Table 12.1.6

 No Requirements as per NFPA 101-38.1.6,

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Corridor Width

OCCUPANCY TYPE (new building)


(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
1120 mm.

(Sprinklered or Not Sprinklered)
1120 mm. serving occupant load > 50,
900 mm. serving occupant load <

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Corridor Walls

Explore the fire rating requirements for corridor walls based on different occupancy types and building codes. This comprehensive reference table outlines the necessary fire resistance for corridor walls in various scenarios, from ambulatory to healthcare facilities. Understand the occupancy-specific regulations and code references for effective fire safety planning. Please note that this information is meant for quick reference only; always refer to NFPA standards or local building codes for complete and accurate details.

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Corridor Doors

This HTML document provides comprehensive information about corridor door fire rating requirements based on different occupancy types and building codes. It covers topics such as the required fire ratings for doors, swing direction based on occupant load, and exceptions for various types of occupancies. The content also emphasizes the importance of adhering to NFPA 101 guidelines and local codes for accurate information. Additionally, there are notes and references for further understanding fire-rated labels and smoke door requirements.

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Common Path of Travel

Explore occupancy types and their common paths of travel in buildings. Learn about code references, travel distances, and safety regulations. Quick reference guide based on NFPA-101 2012 edition.

Sprinkler System

Discover the requirements for sprinkler systems in different occupancy types with this comprehensive table. Find out when and where sprinklers are mandatory, along with NFPA-101 references. Quick and handy reference for fire safety and building codes.

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Fire Alarm System

Learn about fire alarm system requirements for different occupancy types according to NFPA codes. Find out when fire alarm systems are required and their specifications.

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